For a particle in state , the expectation value of is .

.

In general, .

For example, , so .

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# Month: March 2017

## Momentum in Quantum Mechanics

## Quantum Mechanics I: Wave Functions

## Particles Behaving as Waves

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For a particle in state , the expectation value of is .

.

In general, .

For example, , so .

**Wave functions:** The wave function for a particle contains all of the information about that particle. If the particle moves in one dimension in the presence of a potential energy function , the wave function obeys the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation: . (For a *free* particle on which no forces act, .) The quantity , called the probability distribution function, determines the relative probability of finding a particle near a given position at a given time. If the particle is in a state of definite energy, called a stationary state, is a product of a function that depends on only spatial coordinates and a function that depends on only time: . For a stationary state, the probability distribution function is independent of time.

A spatial stationary-state wave function for a particle that moves in one dimension in the presence of a potential-energy function satisfies the time-independent Schrödinger equation: . More complex wave functions can be constructed by super-imposing stationary-state wave functions. These can represent particles that are localized in a certain region, thus representing both particle and wave aspects.

**Particle in a box:** The energy levels for a particle of mass in a box (an infinitely deep square potential well) with width are given by the equation: . The corresponding normalized stationary-state wave functions of the particle are given by the equation .

**Wave functions and normalization:** To be a solution of the Schrödinger equation, the wave function and its derivative must be continuous everywhere except where the potential-energy function has an infinity discontinuity. Wave functions are usually normalized so that the total probability of finding the particle somewhere is unity: .

**Finite potential well:** In a potential well with finite depth , the energy levels are lower than those for an infinitely deep well with the same width, and the number of energy levels corresponding to bound states is finite. The levels are obtained by matching wave functions at the well walls to satisfy the continuity of and .

**Potential barriers and tunneling:** There is a certain probability that a particle will penetrate a potential-energy barrier even though its initial energy is less than the barrier height. This process is called tunneling.

**Quantum harmonic oscillator:** The energy levels for the harmonic oscillator (for which ) are given by the equation: . The spacing between any two adjacent levels is , where is the oscillation angular frequency of the corresponding Newtonian harmonic oscillator.

**Measurement in quantum mechanics:** If the wave function of a particle does not correspond to a definite value of a certain physical property (such as momentum or energy), the wave function changes when we measure that property. This phenomenon is called wave-function collapse.

**De Broglie waves and electron diffraction:** Electrons and other particles have wave properties. A particle’s wavelength depends on its momentum in the same way as for photons: , . A non-relativistic electron accelerated from rest through a potential difference has a wavelength . Electron microscopes use the very small wavelengths of fast-moving electrons to make images with resolution thousands of times finer than is possible with visible light.

**The nuclear atom:** The Rutherford scattering experiments show that most of an atom’s mass and all of its positive charge are concentrated in a tiny, dense nucleus at the center of the atom.

**Atomic line spectra and energy levels:** The energies of atoms are quantized: They can have only certain definite values, called energy levels. When an atom makes a transition from an energy level to a lower level , it emits a photon of energy : . The same photon can be absorbed by an atom in the lower energy level, which excites the atom to the upper level.

**The Bohr model:** In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the permitted values of angular momentum are integral multiples of : , . The integer multiplier is called the principal quantum number for the level. The orbital radii are proportional to : , . The energy levels of the hydrogen atoms are given by , , where is the Rydberg constant.

**The laser:** The laser operates on the principle of stimulated emission, by which many photons with identical wavelength and phase are emitted. Laser operation requires a nonequilibrium condition called population inversion, in which more atoms are in a higher-energy state than are in a lower-energy state.

**Blackbody radiation:** The total radiated intensity (average power radiated per area) from a blackbody surface is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature : (Stefan-Boltzmann law). The quantity is called the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. The wavelength at which a blackbody radiates most strongly is inversely proportional to : (Wien displacement law). The Planck radiation law gives the spectral emittance (intensity per wavelength interval in blackbody radiation): .

**The Heisenberg uncertainty principle for particles:** The same uncertainty considerations that apply to photons also apply to particles such as electrons. The uncertainty in the energy of a state that is occupied for a time is given by equation .

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